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Our consuming society of today is built up around a linear thinking. Most of our planning is illustrated as events organised in chronological order.

Production - Consumption - Waste

This sort of thinking can be found everywhere, in most company planning and perhaps even in your own private everyday world.

  • Linear thinking has its origin in the industrialised community.
  • It is a large scale system.
  • The community takes care of waste products.

All human activities are a part of nature’s eco-cycles. All human beings are a part of nature. A city is a part of nature as an anthill is, with its intricate functions, its roads and the way it obtains its nourishment. An anthill is dependent on solar power, photosynthesis and biological life. There is no waste in an anthill. Waste-products from an anthill are a part of new life.

  • Circular thinking is based upon solar energy, photosynthesis and biological life.
  • It is a small scale system.
  • The inhabitants take care of waste products.
  • There is no waste in nature. A fallen tree in the forest is not waste. It is the start of a new life. Waste only exists in unbalanced systems.

The modern city - an unbalanced system

Modern cities are not self-sufficient, they are unbalanced systems. If a city is going to survive, we must continuously provide the city with energy, water, raw-material and food. A city gives off great amounts of molecular waste, wasted energy and water, used products and rubbish. Molecular waste prevents eco-systems from converting solar-energy to biomass. It affects the ozone-layer. The waste of energy changes the local climate. Sewers drain the water table. Leakage from the sewers poisons the groundwater with bacteria, viruses, metals, organic material and so on.


”The urban sprawl” - the land-consuming city - has been the normal planning model. Suburbs will keep developing and we will get cities with many centres.


The future cities must be based on an ideal social vision, an ideal ecoligical vision, an ideal technical vision and an ideal economical vision.

The future cities must interact with surrounding rural areas with a higher degree of self-sufficiency.